Sunday, 9 October 2011

The Clouds Over Understanding of the Vedas - Part 2

A rejoinder to the book 'The Myth of the holy cow' by D.N.Jha

By B.D.Ukhul

This write-up demands an answer from Mr.D.N Jha for is representation that the Vedas sanctioned beef-eating and it is also an expression of intense feeling of millions of Hindus whose sentiments have been grossly injured by him. Each and every Hindu worships cow as his mother since it nourishes the human being from the very infant stage and all its products benefit the society at large. Our government should impose a ban on cow slaughter and it is also essential to remove the erroneous interpretations of the Vedic texts by encouraging their research and studies by the Sanskrit and Vedic scholars so that we can be proud of our heritage and uphold the flag of truth and nothing but the truth . It also appeals that gross errors in the history books should be rectified and our historians in company of Mr.Jha should also visualize the reality.
In view of the misleading derivations of Mr. Jha in his book 'The Myth of the holy cow', it was considered essential to repudiate his thesis. In this article the same subject is taken up and an effort is made to focus on all the references cited from the RgVeda by Mr.Jha to falsify his conclusions which have damaged the very spirit of the Vedic thought and seem to have been deliberately propagated to denigrate the Aryan heritage which followed the Vedic canons and later the term 'Hindu' could be designated to be the bearers of the flag of Aryan heritage. As a matter of fact the Vedas are the oldest segment of knowledge known to the mankind and at that time the society had no labels of any caste or creed. The presently known major religions all over the world were not in existence and thus the Vedic thought and philosophy did not concern any particular section of humanity but it was universal in its content and appeal. The only misfortune was that the interpretation of the Vedas got astray and the Western scholars also became prey to this in order to project Christianity and we, the inhabitants of Bharat (Aryavarta) ignored the study of our root language Sanskrit which the vested interests conspired to make a dead language and this led to the present situation where we have to struggle to justify ourselves and rather we are being made to defend the word of God.
Mr.Jha has stated on p.28 of his book that the term gau, meaning cow, in different declensions occurs 176 times in the Family Books of the Rgveda, and, the total number of occurances of cattle related terms in the text could be 700 and these figures are on the strength of authors like R.S.Sharma and Doris Srinivasan who engaged their scholarship on such counts only because they were not Sanskrit scholars. The terms rightly identified in this category are gopa, gopati, gavisti , gavyu, gavesana, gojata" etc. but he concludes that the Aryans believed in pastoral economy and this was inherited by them from their Indo-European past. It is a wrong notion and another controversial issue but here it would be sufficient to emphasize that the Aryans were not invaders but were the original inhabitants of this land and the Indian history was twisted by the western scholars to denigrate our heritage and present us in accordance with their design to rule over us and to propagate the superiority of their culture, language, race and religion. Unfortunately, Indian scholars also toed their line to enjoy their patronage and it is the need of the hour to have another close and dispassionate look at our history to restore the truth by falsifying the wrong deductions in vogue. Now the onus lies on us and the scholarship of our generation in the independent India.
It has been stated that like pastoralism, the Aryans brought from outside the practice of animal or cattle acrifice. In this regard it may be pertinent to draw attention to the Vedic hymn of Yajurveda (22.22) "Aa brahamana brahamnho... kalpatam" which is a prayer to God to bless our nation with illustrious and brave persons who should be capable of suppressing the enemies, expert in the art of archery and warfare and should have cows yielding milk in ample quantity, the oxen capable of bearing load and the speedy horses. Our women-folk should be all virtuous and capable of providing leadership. The clouds may shower timely rain and the vegetation should attain fruition. We should be able to achieve our goals and safeguard our achievements. The content of this hymn describes a manifesto of a welfare state and it infers that the pastoral economy was the original canon of the Aryan race itself.
Now to deal with the insinuation of the animal or cattle sacrifice in the Vedic texts the following is stated:
On p.32 of the book (ref.53), citing the RgVeda IV.18.13, it is stated that the entrails of a dog were cooked in a situation of extreme destitution.
T.V.(transliterated version) reads: avartya suna antrani pece na deveshu vivide marditaram apasyam jayam amahiyamanam adha me syeno madhv a jabhara
H.H. Wilson's translation of Bashya by Sayanacarya reads as follows:
"In the extreme destitution I have cooked the entails of a dog: I have not found a comforter among the gods: I have beheld my wife disrespected: then the falcon, (Indra), has brought to me sweet water".
In the english version of the Bhashya by Sw. Dayanand, it is stated that this hymn deals with the duties of a ruler and it is translated as follows:
"O king! I see you as one who provides protection from the mean person, who elopes with my disrespected wife like a falcon. Such a wicked person cannot achieve genuine knowledge from the enlightened persons. You must severe your connections from such a man". The purport of this verse is aptly summed up as "O king! You should destroy men and women of debaucherous nature after giving them severe punishment".
In the Hindi Bhashya by Sw.Dayanand, it is elaborated as follows:
O king! One who takes over my disrespected wife like a hawk who digests the non-usable body of a dog comprising of non-usable 'nadis' entrails should be punished…(The wicked man has been likened to a hawk or falcon who pounces on the dog's body and digests the same). The word 'pece' here means one who digests and not the one who cooks as per Wilson's version.
In the RgVeda Samhita with English translation by Swami Satya Prakash Sarasvati and Satyakam Vidyalankar, this hymn reads as follows:
"Finally the self, so lamented, in extreme destitution: What a shame to me that I have committed a hineous crime as if cooking the entails of a dog (having forgotten my Lord). I could find no comfort among Nature's material forces. Before my own eyes I have seen my wife, the beloved, disrespected. Then the enlightenment, in the form of falcon from heaven, comes down and brings the sweet water".
Manu, refers to a legend; Vamadeva, when oppressed with hunger, took for his meals the flesh of dogs, but who was not thus rendered impure; this he did for the preservation of his life. (Manu X.106)]
The above verse in no way supports consumption of dog's meat. Reference has been made to the RgVeda mantra V.29.7 (p.29, ref.18) to state that Agni roasted 300 buffaloes.
T.V. : sakha sakhye apacat tuyam agnir asya kratva mahisha tri satani tri sakam indro manushah saransi sutam pibad vritrahatyaya somam
Wilson has translated this as follows:
"To aid (the understanding of) his friend, Agni, the friend (of Indra) has quickly consumed three hundred buffaloes; and Indra, for destruction of Vrtra, has at once quaffed vessels of Soma offered by Manu".
Sw.Dayanand's rendering is as follows:
"The Agni (in the form of the fire/energy and sun) soon illuminates three worlds in the middle of the universe and drinks the water of the tanks (by drying it up), and for the slaying the clouds ripens Soma and other things that lead to prosperity in the long run (by increasing physical and mental strength). In the same manner, a friend by the power of his intellect or actions, protects three hundred big animals (cattle wealth) for the welfare of his friend". Purport of this hymn is that the sun manifests the gross objects that are above, below and in the middle. In the same manner, a king should manifest all good, bad and indifferent dealings and deal with all in a judicious manner.
Sw.Satya Praksh and Satyakam have rendered it as follows:
"As a friend to another friend, the cosmic fire ripens the sap of three hundred fields and forests of people, and the Sun works for the destruction of widespread darkness over the three regions, celestial, interspatial and terrestrial".
The comparison of the meaning will reveal that Wilson's translation stresses the roasting of buffaloes by Agni-the sun-god whereas it meant the evaporating effect of the sun which causes rains resulting in the prosperity. Sw.Dayanand has interpreted the phrase 'mahisa tri satani' to mean that it protects three hundred buffaloes or big animals.
The Rgveda hymn VI.16.47 has been cited by Jha to emphasize that 'oblations of food to the accompaniment of heart-felt hymns become like bulls , oxen and cows in sacrifice'(p.41,ref.135) on the strength of Mr.Kane.
T.V.: a te agna rica havir hrida tashtam bharamasi te te bhavantukshana rishabhaso vasa uta
It will be pertinent to quote its translated version by Wilson as follows:
"We offer to you, Agni, the oblation sanctified by the heart, and (identified) with the sacred verse may these vigorous bulls or the cows be (as such an oblation) to you".
Sw.Sataya Prakash and Satyakam have rendered it as follows:
"We offer to you, O Lord, the homage issuing forth from our hearts, and transmitted in the words of the Vedic verses. May the virile bulls, bullocks and cows be dear to you as your own".
Repeatedly, the error of literal translation causes damage to the spirit of the hymn since the context of the hymns 46 & 47 is as to whom the mankind should adore. But the hymn 'te te bhavantu uksna rsabhaso vasa uta' has been interpreted to mean: 'may these vigorous bulls or cows be for you'. Mr. Jha has drawn erroneous conclusion that bulls, oxen and cows are part of the food which is far from truth.
In the hymn of the RgVeda VI.17.11, Jha has inferred that Indra ate flesh of one hundred buffaloes (p.29,ref.17)
T.V.: vardhan yam visve marutah sajoshah pacac chatam mahishan indra tubhyam pusha vishnus trini saransi dhavan vritrahanam madiram ansum asmai
Its translation by Wilson reads as under:
"For you, Indra, whom all the Maruts, alike pleased, exalt, may Pusan and Visnu dress for you a hundred buffaloes, and to him may the three streams flow with the inebriating, foe-destroying Soma".
The English rendering of this hymn by Sw. Satya Prakash and Satyakam is as follows:
"O innerself, all the vital faculties of human body, with one accord, exalt you. Hundreds of great gifts are provided to you by all pervading and all sustaining vital breaths. May the three joy-giving streams of nectar flow to him for exhilaration and cure".
Dr. Krishan Lal, former Sanskrit Professor of University of Delhi has translated the word 'mahisha' as cloud and states that the phrase 'pachhtam mahisha indra tubhyam' in this hymn actually means magnification of hundreds of (many) clouds by the surya-the sungod. [Tankara Samachar dated July, 2002 at p.13].
The RgVeda hymn VIII.12.8(p.29,ref.19) has been cited to mean killing of a thousand buffaloes.
T.V.: yadi pravriddha satpate sahasram mahishan aghah ad it ta indriyam mahi pra vavridhe
The hymn has been translated by Wilson as follows:
"Great Indra, protector of the good, when you have slain thousands of mighty (foes), then your vast and special energy has been augmented".
In Sw.Satya Prakash and Satyakam's translation, it is rendered as follows:
"O powerful Lord of resplendence, the protector of truth, when you put an end to hundreds of evils, your resplendence grows beyond limits".
The hymn's translation by Wilson describes Indra as protector of the good and relates augmentation of energy by slaying thousands of mighty (foes) but Mr.Jha has restricted his vocabulary to mean it buffaloes. [This is only a literal translation or deliberate effort without caring for the context and spirit of the hymn]
The RgVeda hymn VIII.19.5 has been cited by Jha (p.41,ref.134) to state "a devout offering of praise or of a fuel stick or of cooked food was as good as a more, solemn sacrifice".
T.V.: yah samidha ya ahuti yo vedena dadasa marto agnaye yo namasa svadhvarah
Wilsons' translation of this hymn is "The man who has presented (worship) to Agni with fuel, with burnt offerings, with the Veda, with sacrificial food, and is diligent in pious rites".
Sw.Satya Prakash and Satyakam's interpretation reads as
"The mortal, who presents offering to the fire divine, with the fuel, with the oblations, with the chanting of Vedic lores, and with reverence".
Difference in rendering of the hymns reveals that the slant of Wilson's translation is towards the ritual of sacrifice and so he could not capture the spirit of the divine hymn.
Mr.Jha cites RgVeda's hymn VIII.43.11 to state that Indra's food is the ox and the barren cow (p.29, ref.22)
T.V.: ukshannaya vasannaya somaprishthaya vedhase Stomair vidhemagnaye
This hymn is translated by Wilson to read
"Let us adore with hymns Agni, the granter (of desires), the eater of the ox, the eater of the morrow on whose back the libation is poured"
Sw.Satya Prakash and Satyakam interpreted this hymn as
"Let us adore with hymns the fire-divine, who is fed on agricultural products, dairy products, and who bears the herbal plants on the back".
Jha quotes Rgveda X.16.4 (p.30,ref.26) to argue that for disposal of the dead a recourse is taken 'to the burning of a goat which is the share of Agni, and to use of the flesh of the cow to protect the body against the flame'
T.V.: ajo bhagas tapasa tam tapasva tam te socistapatu tam te areih yas te sivas tanvo jatavedas tabhir vahainam sukritam u lokam
Mr. Wilson's translation of this verse reads as follows:
"The unborn portion; burn that, Agni, with your heat; let your flame, your spleandour, consume it; with those glorious members which have given him, Jatavedas, bear him to the world (of the virtuous)".
The actual content of the hymn as per Sw.Satya Prakash and Satyakam's interpretation is as follows:
"O fire divine, let your radiant flame and your glowing splendour make the imperishable soul pure and bright, and with the auspicious body, which you provide to him, may you convey him to the region of the virtuous".
Verse of RgVeda X.16.7 is also cited by Mr.Jha supported by Keith to substantiate his theory regarding coverage of the dead body.
T.V.: agner varma pari gobhir vyayasva sam prornushva pivasa medasa canet tva dhrishnur harasa jarhrishano dadhrig vidhakshyan paryaukhayate
This has been translated by Wilson to read as follows:
"Enclose the mail of Agni with the (hide of the) cow; cover it with the fat and marrow: then will not (Agni), bold, exulting in his fierce heat, proud ,embrace you round about to consume you (to ashes)".
This verse is rendered to mean as follows by Sw.Satya Prakash and Satyakam:
"When the body is being entirely consumed (on the funeral pyre) with the flames brightened by butter, another body with new fat and new marrow is being provided (to the departed soul in a fresh womb). May not this bold fire, exulted in his fierce heat, and full of pride, embrace and consume your new body to ashes (which is being given to you elsewhere)".
RgVeda hymn X.27.2 has been cited(p.29,ref.16) regarding killing of a bull.
T.V.: yadid aham yudhaye samnayany adevayun tanva susujanan ama te tumram vrishabham pacani tivram sutam pancadasam ni shincam
It has been translated by Wilson to read "If I encounter in combat the undevout, resplendent in their bodies, then will I cook a vigorous bull for them, and will sprinkle (upon the fire) the exhilarating effused juice the fifteenfold (Soma)".
Sw.Satya Prakash and Satyakam render its interpretation to read "If I lead my friends to battle against the dark clouds of nescience, unfaithful but strong in physical strength, then having dispelled the darkness, I shall impel the furious and vigorous sun, and thereafter, sprinkle on the earth exhilarating peace of the full moonlight".
The term 'vrishabham' is translated by Wilson as bull but according to Mr.S.N.Shastri it is the strength which helps to shower grace on the praja i.e. people and the term 'pacani' does not mean that 'I cook' but instead it is 'I lead it to fruition or expansion or exaltation'
According to Mr.Jha, Indra is said to have eaten the flesh of bulls (p.29,ref.15) as per RgVeda hymn X.28.3
T.V.: adrina te mandina indra tuyan sunvanti soman pibasi tvam esham pacanti te vrishabhan atsi tesham prikshena yan maghavan huyamanah"
Mr.Wilson's translation of this hymn states as follows:
"(Vasukra speaks) Your worshippers express with the stone fast flowing exhilarating Soma-juices for you, you drink them; they roast bulls for you, you eat them, when you are invoked, Maghavan, to the sacrificial food".
Sw.Satya Prakash and Satyakam render its interpretation as follows:
"(Day speaks) O sovereign Lord, the worshippers express their devotion through exhilarating prayers and dedicated actions (just as herb juice pressed through stones); you accept them and drink; they cook the strengthening and joy-showering foods for you and when invoked, you accept their invocation".
Here again, the terms 'vrishabh' and 'pacanti' have done the damage as in the preceding hymn X.27.2
Mr.Jha has cited RgVeda X.68.3 (p.33, ref.64) to state that the killing of the kine to honour guests seems to have been prevalent from earlier times.
T.V.: sadhvarya atithinir ishira sparhah suvarna anavadyarupah brihaspatih parvatebhyo viturya nir ga upe yavam iva sthivibhyah
[the term 'atithinir' has been interpreted as 'cows fit for guests'
Mr.Wilson's translation reads as follows:
"Brhaspati brings unto (the gods), after extricating them from the mountains, the cows that are the yielders of pure (milk), ever in motion, the objects of search and desire, well coloured and of unexceptionable form, (as men bring) barley from the granaries".
Sw.Satya Prakash and Satyakam have translated this hymn as follows:
"The supreme sun first makes a search of cows (i.e. rays or the lost wisdom), and finds them hidden in the caves of mountains (i.e. behind the clouds); he recovers and extricates these (cows or rays) which furnish pure milk (or rays furnishing light), ever in motion, worthy of search, worth coveting, of splendid colours, and of exceptional forms. They are set free (from hiding) as barley from the granaries".
Atithinih means - ever in motion or constantly moving [atithini: satatam gachhanti- Sayan]
According to Shri Satyanand Shastri, Prof. Griffith has translated this hymn as follows:
"Brhaspati having won them from the mountains, strewed down, like barley out of the winnowing baskets; the vigorous, wandering cows who aid the pious, desired of all, of blameless form, well coloured".
Mr.Jha has again erred immensely to prove his stand.
RgVeda hymn X.85.13 has been cited by Jha (p.33, ref. 66) to point out that it refers to the slaughter of a cow on the occasion of marriage.
T.V.: suryaya vahatuh pragat savita yam avasrijat aghasu hanyante gavo rjunyoh pary nhyatc
It has been translated by Mr. Wilson as follows:
"Surya's bridal procession which Savita dispatched has advanced; the oxen are whipped along in the Magha (constellations); she is borne (to her husband's house) in the Arjuni (constellations)".
Sw.Satya Prakash and Satyakam's rendering is "The bridal procession of the Sun's daughter, which the divine mother creator dispatches, moves along; the oxen of the chariot are whipped along in the MAGHA constellations; she is taken to her husband's house in the ARJUNI (Phalguna) constellations".
RgVeda hymn X.86.14 has been singled out by Mr.Jha(p.21,ref.14) to underline the practice of eating beef.
T.V.: ukshno hi me pancadasa sakam pacanti vinsatim utaham admi piva id ubha kukshi prinanti me visvasmad indra uttarah
This hymn has been translated by Mr. Wilson as follows:
"(Indra speaks) The worshippers dress for me fifteen (and) twenty bulls: I eat them and (become) fat, they fill both sides of my belley; Indra is above all (the world)".
Sw. Satya Prakash and Satyakam interpret this verse as follows:
"(The Self speaks) The worshippers ripen for me fifteen and twenty matured showerers of blessings and thereafter I fill the spaces with essence on both sides of my form. The Self is supreme over all. [Fifteen= 10 Pranas (vital breaths) and 5 bhootas+Twenty= 5 tanmatras (colour,taste,sound,smell and touch)+ 5 elements+ 5 organs of sense+ 5 motor-organs]".
RgVeda hymn X.91.14 has been cited by Mr.Jha to illustrate that Indra's food is the ox and the barren cow etc. (p.30, refs.22-25).
T.V.: yasminn asvasa rishabhasa ukshano vasa mesha avasrishtasa ahutah kilalape somaprishthaya vedhase hrida matim janaye carum agnaye
This has been translated by Mr.Wilson as follows:
"I offer graceful praise with all my heart to Agni , the drinker of water, whose back is sprinkled with Soma, the ordainer (of the rite), to whom vigorous horses and bulls and barren cows and sheep are consigned as burnt offerings".
Translation by Sw.Satya Prakash and Satyakam reads as follows:
"I offer my words of appreciation with sincerity at my heart to the fire- divine, the absorber of water, to whom the oblations of herbal juices (mixed with curds) are offered and to whom every living being like vigorous horses, bulls, milching cows and barren ones, sheep and goat (and even men) are consigned after their death ( i.e. to the Kravya-agni, the cremating fire)".
It will be pertinent to add here that in his Hindi booklet entitled "Kya pracheen arya log mansahari the?", Shri Satyanand Shastri has dealt in detail some of the Vedic references cited by Mr.Jha and they are further capable of falsifying the interpretations deduced by the author of this derogatory book. To facilitate their consultation and close understanding, the following information is furnished:
RgVeda X.16.7 pp.17-20 RgVeda X.27.2 pp.20-21 RgVeda X.28.3 pp.21-23 RgVeda X.68.3 pp.29-30 RgVeda X.85.13pp.11-15 RgVeda X.86.14pp.26
The thesis of Mr.Jha through his book under scrutiny has also denigrated the Vedic deities namely, Agni,Indra, Pusan,Maruta, Mitra,Soma,Varuna,Visnu etc. by mentioning that they were fond of eating flesh of animals specially of the bulls, buffaloes , cows etc. Pages 29-30 of the book mention that Agni liked buffaloes, Indra had special liking for bulls, Pusan ate mush, Maruts, Mitra and Varuna liked cows etc. All these terms denote the various names of the God and indirectly Mr.Jha has tried to prove Him to be meat-eater .i.e the Creator Himself eating its own creation , a great PARADOX in itself. Mr.Jha could not comit a greater sin than this, he being descendent of the Brahamanic lineage has abused his scholarship and ran to London to get his book published to earn recognition from his patrons who wish to denigrate the Hindus and their heritage. It may be relevant to describe some of these deities in brief as follows:
Agni (from the root anchu which signifies gati and worship. Gati means to know, to move or go, to realize) denotes God, because He is all-knowledge,Omniscient and worthy of adoration, fit subject to be known, sought after and realized.
Indra (from Idi-power) is One who is all-powerful. [RgVeda II.12 describes various characteristics and functions of Indra]
Mitra (from nimid-to love) means God, because He loves all and is worthy of being loved by all.
Visnu (Vish-to pervade) is One who pervades all the universe, animate and inanimate. [Light of truth by Swami Dayanand Saraswati at pp.7-10]
Sri Aurobindo describes Agni as the seers' will and the Rgveda itself conceives of it as divine force lying latent in all minds,-the divine energy, that makes itself felt in all beings, - the factor which is responsible for transformation of the total consciousness of the human being. In the words of Sri Aurobindo, Agni represents "the flames of the will, the divine force bringing up in the soul".
While describing Indra, Aurobindo states "Indra, the puissant next, who is the power of pure Existence self-manifested as the Divine Mind. As Agni is one pole of Force instinct with knowledge that sends its current upward from earth to heaven, so Indra is the other pole of Light instinct with force which descends from heaven to earth. He comes down into world as the Hero with the shining horses and slays darkness and division with his lightnings, pours down the life-giving heavenly waters, finds in trace of bound, intuition lost or hidden illuminations, makes the Sun of Truth mount high in the heaven of our mentality".[Hymns to the Mystic Fire by Sri Aurobindo,1952 at p.xxxi]
Sri Aurobindo proclaims "Soma is the illumined Ananda that descends from above" and "Soma is the ambrosial wine of the Veda, the wine of delight or the wine of Immortality".[On the Veda by Sri Aurobindo,1956. p.349 & p.420].
The above is quoted only to give a glimpse of the magnanimity of some of the Vedic deities and what is their significance in the realm of Vedic thought and Mr.Jha and his supporters have stooped too low to abuse their scholarship to insult the tolerant Hindu beliefs by inflicting the heinous charge by describing the Aryans and their deities as beef-eaters. [Mr.Jha owes to account for his insinuations against Hindu deities according to the law of land]

Some references from the Vedas and Mahabharata which condemn the killing of cows:
AtharvaVeda I.16.4 Kill the killer of the cow with the bullet of lead. Atharva Veda III.30.1 You should impart love to each other as the non-killable cow does for its calf RgVeda VII.56.17 Punish the killer of the cow and the man. RgVeda VIII.101.15 Cow is pure, do not kill it. RgVeda X.10.87.16 Those who kill the 'Aghanya' the cow which is not to be killed according Vedic edicts, their heads should be chopped offBy B.D.Ukhul . [Translation of this verse in full in Sw. Satya Praksh 's version reads:"O fire divine, you may tear off the heads of the evil-spirited cannibal who lives on the flesh of men and who satisfies himself with the flesh of horses and cattle and who steals for himself the milk of milch-cow".] YajurVeda XIII.49 Do not kill the cow. YajurVeda XXX.18 Award death sentence to the killer of the cow. Mahabharata- Shantiparva 262.47 Cow is called 'aghanya' and thus non-killable.
Some examples of glorification of the cow in the Vedas:
AtharvVeda XI.1.34 states "dhenuh sadnam rayeenham" i.e. 'cow is the fountainhead of all the bounties'. The entire Sukta 28 of VIth Mandala of the RgVeda sings glory of the cow.(seven hymns alongwith their full text and Hindi translation could be seen in the book entitled "Gyan Ganga Sagar-Vol.II" at pp.100-103). RgVeda VI.28.3 states 'enemy may not use any astra i.e. weapon on cows' RgVeda VI.28.4 states 'no body should take them to butcherhouse to kill them' RgVeda VI.28.5 states 'milk of cow is used in the first offering (ahuti) to Soma' YajurVeda XXIII.48 states "Gostu matra n vidyate" i.e. Cow cannot be compared with anything.

Scriptures of Sikhism:
In Dashamgranth, Gurugovind Singhji prays to God as follows:
Yahi deh agya tark ko khapaun Goghat ka dukh jagat se mitaun Aas poornh karo tum hamari Mite kasht gauan chhoote khed bhari [He desired to remove the cow slaughter from the world and save them from any torture]
Aadigranthsahab states as follows:
Doodh katore garhve paani Kapila gaai namey duh aani [ It is in praise of the cow's milk]
Cow and Swami Dayanand Saraswati
Swami Dayanand was the first crusader against cow slaughter and his book 'Gokarunanidhi'[Ocean of mercy for the cow] is a living testimony which speaks of his inner feelings on the subject. It was written on 24th February, 1881. This treatise has three sections namely 1) Discussion of the essential principles 2) Rules and 3) Sub-rules. This stipulates constitution of a society for preservation and protection of the cows. Swamiji pleaded with the British officials to stop cow slaughter and personally met Col. Brooks, political agent of Rajasthan and Mr.Muir, Lt.Governor of N.W.P.(now Uttar Pradesh) to state that the cow was the backbone of the Indian economy and soul of its socio-cultural fabric. At the instance of Swamiji, Maharaja Sajjansingh of Udaipur and Maharaja Jaswantsingh of Jodhpur banned the long prevailing practice of slaughter of animals in their states. Swamiji even drafted an appeal that was to be submitted to the Queen Victoria duly signed by two crore Indians but this work was interrupted due to death of Swamiji in 1883. He deeply felt for the cow and waged a battle for its cause. His intense love for the cow cannot be described in words but his mission of banning cow slaughter was cut short by his death which needs to be accomplished.
Western Indologists, Swami Dayananda Saraswati and the Vedas
The Vedas in their true spirit were restored to this land By Swami Dayanand Saraswati who toiled hard to bring home the Vedic thought and its ideals in the face of great opposition and hazards by the society which was enveloped with evils like untouchability, lack of education of the women, plight of the widows, blind faiths and dominance of ignorant Brahamins who were more concerned with their bread and butter but were far away from the Vedas and Swamiji held the fort and gave us his luminous work in 'Satyarthprakash' and the Bhashya of the Vedas which conveyed their true meaning and spirit. He displayed remarkable fearlessness and applied the Vedic yardstick to all the prevailing sects, religions and faiths. In the 3rd principle of Aryasamaj's ten principles he stipulated that "The Vedas are the scriptures of all true knowledge. It is the paramount duty of all Aryans to read them to teach them (others) and to hear them read to recite them (others)". Regarding western Indologists, a revealing document entitled "Western Indologists: A study in motives" was written by an eminent Vedic scholar Shri Bhagavad Datta and published by Itihasa Prakashana Mandala in 1954. While quoting their designs at the behest of their masters, Shri Bhagvad Datta states as follows:
"They received enormous financial aid from their Governments and also from the British Government in India, which they freely used in writing articles, pamphlets and books propagating their reactionary views in a very subtle and disguised manner. It was their careful endeavour not to give themselves away and to mislead the world and the people of Bharatavarsha under the cloak of scholarship and impartiality. They might have pretty well succeeded in their work had not their apple-cart been upset by Svami Dayananda Sarasvati, who ruthlessly exposed their nefarious designs. Svamiji was man of unique personality, indomitable courage, keen intellect and far-reaching vision and imagination. He had come in contact with many European scholars of his time. He had met George Buhler, Monier Williams, Rudolf Hoernle, Thibaut and others who had worked with Christian zeal in the field of Sanskrit research. He was the first man whose penetrating eye could not fail to see through the ulterior motives of their research work, although the common run of people in Bharatavarsha and even most of the learned men in the employ of the Government here had permitted themselves to be deluded by their so-called profound scholarship, strict impartiality, scientific and liberal outlook. He gave a timely warning to the people of his country and to a great extent succeeded in saving them from the clutches of these pseudo-scholars and clandestine missionaries".
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya on Albert Weber, another German Indologist
"The celebrated Weber was no doubt a scholar but I am inclined to think that it was an unfortunate moment for India when he began the study of Sanskrit. The descendants of the German savages of yesterday could not reconcile themselves to the ancient glory of India. It was therefore, their earnest effort to prove that the civilization of India was comparatively of recent origin. They could not persuade themselves to believe that the Mahabharata was composed centuries before Christ was born". [English translation of Hindi version of his work entitled "Krishan Charitra, 3rd parichhed"]
Jha is so much pre-occupied with the theme to prove his thesis that the mere occurance of the terms 'mahish' or'vrishabh' etc. appear to him to be the food of the Aryans and that too on the authority of the revered and sacred books of the Aryans who presently are represented and bear the nomenclature of 'Hindus' and this single term is now enough to stir the latest so called secular environment of India and is seen to be derogatory by most of the present political set-ups for the sake of votes. Even the word saffron is being maligned in their politics, which is the colour of renunciation or 'tyag' the very soul of the society which aims at peace and co-existence. It is beyond doubt that majority of the Muslims and Christians in India are only converts but their forefathers are from the same source i.e. the Aryans but it is very difficult to digest this reality when the politicians and fanatics are there to blind them. India has embraced all creeds and followers of different religions and it is their bounden duty to the country of their shelter and adoption to give their original inhabitants and also their ancestors due respect to their beliefs and faith and prove the worth of their salt to their motherland for all its bounties and at least follow the following edicts of the Vedas which are the prayers for one and all.
RgVeda X.191.1: T.V.: sam-sam id yuvase vrishann agne visvany arya a ilas pade sam idhyase sa no vasuny a bhara
"O adorable Lord, showerer of blessings, the supreme master, you are the universal unifying factor; you are enkindled in the heart of every one, i.e. at the seat of divine revelation. May you bring to us riches (of spirituality and prosperity)".
RgVeda X.191.2:
T.V.: sam gachadhvam sam vadadhvam sam vo manansi janatam deva bhagam yatha purve samjanana upasate
"May you move together, speak together in one voice; let your minds be of one accord; and like the ancient sages, may you enjoy your assigned share of fortune".
Author expresses his deep gratitude to Shri Bharat Bhushan Vidyalankar,C2A/90,Janakpuri for his guidance and encouragement to accomplish this task.
The author is former Librarian of the Indian National Science Academy,New Delhi and presently Up-pradhan of Aryasamaj,C Block,Janakpuri,New Delhi-110058.
Residential Address: C2A/58,Janakpuri,New Delhi-110058.Telephone ®25525128 E-mail

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[This article has also been published in the journal namely, “Vedic Science” in the issue dated July-Sept.Vol.4,No.3(20002) and is also placed on the website]

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